Reframing compensatory education through scientific evidence. Inclusive actions for equality of results

Henar Rodríguez Navarro, Oriol Ríos González, Sandra Racionero Plaza

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    11 Citations (Scopus)


    © 2012, Ministry Education and Science. All rights reserved. The European Commission and the Spanish Ministry of Education included in recent recommendations and documents the need to ensure the acquisition of basic competences and the extension of learning time as measures for the educational success of all students (Consorcio INCLUD-ED, 2011; European Commission, 2006; European Commission, 2007). These recommendations are in line with the scientific literature, which shows that inclusive approaches of this sort are related with improved academic performance. In Spain these notions are embodied in the refocusing of compensatory education on successful inclusive action. This article discusses three initiatives implemented in Spain that illustrate the change of focus and its impact: 1) Development of Basic Competences and the Inclusive Approach, a Ministry of Education project, 2) INCLUD-ED. Strategies for Inclusion and Social Cohesion in Europe from Education, a research project under the European Commission’s 6th Framework Programme, and 3) the PROA compensatory education programme, funded by the Ministry of Education since the 2004-05 academic year. These programmes are compared with the general stance taken by compensatory education policies in Spain, the European Commission’s guidelines and international research. The methodology consists in analyzing the scientific literature and some results of the aforementioned initiatives and projects. The perceptions of a wide range of stakeholders in society and education (including educators, students, teachers, families, supervisors, policymakers and volunteers) concerning the extension of learning time and basic competences are compared. The results show the benefits of the inclusive approach in the teaching of basic competences and an improvement in the academic performance of students who receive before-school or after-school support in basic subjects. A list of recommendations is given for the implementation of inclusive education policies that are both efficient and equitable.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)67-87
    JournalRevista de Educacion
    Issue numberEXTRA 2012
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2012


    • Basic competences
    • Compensatory education
    • Educational success
    • Extending learning time
    • Inclusive approach
    • PROA


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