© 2015 Elsevier B.V. Inorganic arsenic (i-As) is a genotoxic and carcinogenic environmental contaminant known to affect millions of people worldwide. Our previous work demonstrated that chronic sub-toxic i-As concentrations were able to induce biologically significant levels of genotoxic and oxidative DNA damage that were strongly influenced by the Ogg1 genotype. In order to study the nature of the observed levels of damage and the observed differences between MEF Ogg1+/+ and Ogg1-/- genetic backgrounds, the genotoxic and oxidative DNA repair kinetics of 18-weeks exposed MEF cells were evaluated by the comet assay. Results indicate that MEF Ogg1+/+ and Ogg1-/- cells chronically exposed to i-As repair the DNA damage induced by arsenite, potassium bromide and UVC radiation less efficiently than control cells, being that observation clearly more pronounced in MEF Ogg1-/- cells. Consequently, exposed cells accumulate a higher percentage of unrepaired DNA damage at the end of the repair period. As an attempt to eliminate i-As associated toxicity, chronically exposed MEF Ogg1-/- cells overexpress the arsenic metabolizing enzyme As3mt. This adaptive response confers cells a significant resistance to i-As-induced cell death, but at expenses of accumulating high levels of DNA damage due to their repair impairment. Overall, the work presented here evidences that i-As chronic exposure disrupts the normal cellular repair function, and that oxidative DNA damage-and Ogg1 deficiency-exacerbates this phenomenon. The observed cell death resistance under a chronic scenario of genotoxic and oxidative stress may in turn contribute to the carcinogenic effects of i-As.
|Journal||Mutation Research - Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis|
|Publication status||Published - 1 Sep 2015|
- Chronic exposure
- DNA repair kinetics
- Oxidative DNA damage