Objectives: This report presents the results of an observational empirical clinical investigation about the prevalence and correlates of a proposed definition of recovery from schizophrenia in outpatients in Spain. Methods: Of 1010 outpatients with schizophrenia (DSM-IV-TR), a subgroup of 452 patients in symptomatic remission (SR) was followed for 1 year. SR was defined according to Andreasen's severity criteria based on the Scales for the Assessment of Positive (SAPS) and Negative (SANS) Symptoms. A Global Assessment of Functioning scale score of > 80 was considered to be indicative of adequate functioning (AF). Correlates of recovery were identified by logistic regression. Results: At baseline, 103 (22.8%; N = 452) patients fulfilled the recovery definition (SR + AF). After 1 year, 338 patients (89.9%; N = 376) maintained SR. Among these, the proportion of patients in recovery increased to 27.1% (102 out of 376). Better premorbid adjustment (PA) and improved social cognition correlated with recovery at baseline. After 1 year, PA, duration of untreated psychosis (DUP), type of pharmacotherapy, attitudes toward medication, and variation of depressive symptoms and social cognition determined the likelihood of recovery. Conclusions: The proportion of patients in recovery increased among those fulfilling SR criteria. After 1 year, in addition to known factors like shorter DUP and better PA, social cognitive abilities and depressive symptoms were found to correlate with recovery. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
- Observational research
- Recovery of function