Robertsonian (Rb) translocation is the largest source of chromosomal diversity in the western European house mouse (Mus musculus domesticus). Recently, the fusion Rb(7.17) was found in the chromosomal polymorphic zone of this subspecies in the north-east of the Iberian Peninsula. This fusion has not been reported in any other European population. Here we give data on the distribution and frequency of this mutation in this region. Results revealed that Rb(7.17) is restricted to a small geographic area, and that, in comparison with other fusions in this polymorphic zone, it occurs at low frequencies. We suggest some possible explanations for the distribution of this translocation. © 2007 Cambridge University Press.