In pulmonary hypertension (PHT) in the child, we may find almost any one of the etiologies of the WHO classification and specific conditions of the pediatric age, such as persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn, or that associated to metabolic diseases, although undoubtedly the most numerous group is made up of those with pulmonary hypertension associated to congenital heart disease. We lack classifications, consensus documents, and diagnostic and therapeutic protocols specific for pediatric PHT, for which, the protocols created for the disease of the adults are applied. However, in recent years, it has become manifest that the spectrum of the PHT in the child is much more complex and heterogeneous than in the adult, cases with multifactorial etiologies are common in the pediatric pulmonary hypertension, and also the association of multiple congenital malformation syndromes or chromosomopathies in the pediatric patients with PHT. The publication of registries of pediatric PHT, as that of Switzerland, the United Kingdom, Holland, or France, have provided information on the epidemiology of this disease in children, with prevalences for idiopathic PHT at approximately 3.7 cases/million inhabitants (similar to those reported in the adult). The most frequent form of PHT in the child is that associated with congenital heart disease (both repaired and not repaired), that accounts for more than 50% of all the series. Interesting reviews have also been published on the diagnosis, on the normal values for the 6-minute test in children, and biological markers such as that of uric acid or BNP, that have facilitated the stratification of risk of the pediatric patients with PHT. The different arterial hypertension treatment protocols in the child are reviewed.
|Journal||Revista Espanola de Pediatria|
|Publication status||Published - 1 May 2011|
- Congenital heart disease
- Malformation syndromes
- Pediatric arterial hypertension