Purpose: To analyze the expression of PTOV1 in high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HG-PIN) and to explore its usefulness to predict prostate cancer in patients with isolated HG-PIN in needle biopsy (prostate needle biopsy). Experimental Design: PTOV1 expression in HG-PIN lesions from 140 patients was analyzed by immunohistochemistry in a semiquantitative manner (Histo-score). HG-PIN derived from 79 radical prostatectomies for prostate cancer and from 11 cistoprostatectomies for bladder cancer without prostate cancer were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. Fifty patients with HG-PIN without concomitant cancer at their first prostate needle biopsy were chosen as the study group. Patients were followed by a mean of 2.5 repeated prostate needle biopsies (1-5), during a mean period of 12.4 months (1-39). Results: PTOV1 expression in HG-PIN from radical prostatectomies showed a significantly higher Histo-score (162.6) compared with specimens from cistoprostatectomies (67.0). In the study group, PTOV1 expression was significantly higher in samples with cancer in the follow-up (11 patients, 22%) compared with samples in which cancer was not detected (151.4 versus 94.6). PTOV1 expression was the only independent predictor of cancer in the multivariate analysis and the area under the curve was 0.803 (95% confidence interval, 0.728-0.878). A threshold of 100 for PTOV1 expression provided 90.9% sensitivity, 51.3% specificity, 34.5% positive predictive value, and 95.2% negative predictive value. Conclusions: PTOV1 is overexpressed in HG-PIN associated with cancer and is a potential marker for studying the carcinogenesis and progression of prostate cancer. Prostate needle biopsy with PTOV1 expression in HG-PIN above a threshold of 100 should be repeated immediately for the likely presence of undiagnosed cancer. ©2008 American Association for Cancer Research.