There are different designs of prosthesis for use in the repair of incisional hernia, and it is often difficult to choose the most appropriate. The biological behaviour of the material must be a key part in the selection, although this behaviour will vary depending on what materials are available. A proper understanding of the relationship of the material with the abdominal wall dynamics is another important factor in this selection. Finally we need a stable repair without long term side effects. This paper analyses the prostheses more commonly available for incisional hernia surgery in the non-emergency situation.