This chapter provides a rationale for how project-based language learning (PBLL) can play a key role in language teaching and what this implies for teachers and learners. PBLL not only allows for a practical and meaningful approach to teaching and assessing language learning; it also promotes effective learning strategies and critical thinking skills. First, the main criteria for competences are examined along with links to the underlying premises of learning in PBLL. Next, the chapter delves into the question of communicative competences and explores ways of integrating the notion of competences and PBLL to design and implement language learning activities in different scenarios. An example of a multiple-pronged, bi-focal PBLL design illustrates how PBLL can be successfully implemented at all levels of education.