Introduction. To determine the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. Patients and method. A cross-sectional study was performed with HIV-infected patients aged 20 or over managed at the outpatient Infectious Disease Unit during 2003. Clinical and epidemiological characteristics of HIV infection and cardiovascular risk factors were evaluated. Results. The final 760 patients included in the study had a mean of 1.5 cardiovascular risk factors, with smoking being the most prevalent (66.8%; CI 95%: 63.4-70.2). The cardiovascular risk factor of age and gender was present in 26.4% (CI 95%: 23.3-29.7) of patients and family history of premature coronary heart disease in 14.3% (CI 95%: 11.8-16.9). The prevalence of hypertension and diabetes mellitus was 13.2% (CI 95%: 10.8-15.8) and 4.3% (CI 95%: 3.0-6.0), respectively. High density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration under 40 mg/dl was found in 29.3% (CI 95%: 26.1-32.7) and above 60 mg/dl in 16.3% (CI 95%: 13.8-19.1). Twenty-five patients (3.3%; CI 95%: 2.1-4.8) had suffered overt cardiovascular disease. Conclusion. Smoking and HDL cholesterol were the main cardiovascular risk factors in this HIV-infected cohort.