Objective: The prevalence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors in renal transplantation is high. Studying the evolution of cardiovascular risk factors over time may help us to design better strategies to control them. The relative impact of traditional cardiovascular risk factors on allograft survival and mortality in transplant recipients is not clear. This study was performed to determine the incidence and risk factors for allograft survival and mortality among renal transplant patients. Patients and Methods: We enrolled 250 patients who had undergone transplantation between 1980 and 2004. They were followed for various periods, and we analyzed the impact of traditional and nontraditional risk factors on renal allograft survival. Results: The prevalence of hypertension was >80% during all the follow-up periods. Blood pressure diminished, antihypertensive drug prescription increased, and 15% of patients had adequate blood pressure control during follow-up. The prevalence of pretransplant diabetes mellitus was 6.8%; the incidence of posttransplant diabetes mellitus (PTDM) was 14.2%. The prevalence of PTDM increased over the course of patient evolution. The prevalence of dyslipidemia was in all cases >70%; total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol decreased; prescription of statins increased; and the percentage of patients with good lipid control also increased. The 25% prevalence of active smoking at the time of transplantation decreased to 13.6% at 10 years posttransplantation. The mean patient follow-up was 8 ± 4.6 years. Sixty-five patients (26%) lost their grafts and 40 (16%) died during follow-up. Donor age, exercise, diastolic blood pressure, renal function, and albumin levels were independent risk factors for graft loss. Charlson comorbidity index at transplantation, recipient and donor ages, exercise, diastolic blood pressure, and LDL-cholesterol posttransplantation were independent risk factors for mortality among renal transplant recipients. Conclusion: Blood pressure and lipid control improved during follow-up, however, insufficiently among renal transplant patients. The prevalence of diabetes gradually increased, and the incidence of smoking cessation was low. Diastolic blood pressure, exercise, and albuminemia were the most significant modifiable cardiovascular risk factors for renal allograft survival. Diastolic blood pressure, LDL-cholesterol level, and exercise were the most relevant modifiable cardiovascular risk factors for the survival of renal transplant patients. © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
|Publication status||Published - 1 Jul 2009|