Clinical signs and magnetic resonance imaging findings of multiple brain infarcts in two dogs infected with Leishmania spp. are reported. Clinical signs of intracranial dysfunction were peracute and there was no further deterioration. Magnetic resonance images of the brain were consistent with multifocal, non-haemorrhagic, ischaemic lesions. Routine serum biochemistry revealed hyperproteinaemia and hyperglobulinaemia. Serum antibody titres were highly positive for Leishmania infantum and Leishmania amastigotes were seen within bone marrow macrophages in both cases. Canine leishmaniasis can cause cerebrovascular alterations, such as vasculitis, that might predispose dogs to brain infarcts. © 2012 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.