Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) includes a variety of techniques that have been developed to detect the transmission to the offspring of genetic diseases or of chromosome abnormalities by couples at risk before a pregnancy is established, to avoid these couples the risk of recurrent abortions and/or of repeated terminations of pregnancy. Candidate couples are carriers of gene mutations or of structural chromosome rearrangements, or with recurrent spontaneous abortions of unknown origin. Diagnostic procedures include different modalities of gene amplification using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or of fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Embryo biopsies are carried out at the 6-8 cell stage. Healthy embryos are transferred on day 4 or at the blastocyst stage. By now, several hundred healthy children have been born using PGD, and only one diagnostic error has been reported. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd.