Predictors of estimated glomerular filtration rate progression, stabilization or improvement after chronic renal impairment in HIV-positive individuals

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Objectives: The objectives of this analysis were to investigate predictors of progression, stabilization or improvement in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) after development of chronic renal impairment (CRI) in HIV-positive individuals. Design: Prospective observational study. Methods: The Data Collection on Adverse events of Anti-HIV Drugs (D:A:D) study participants progressing to CRI defined as confirmed, at least 3 months apart, and eGFR 70 ml/min per 1.73 m2 or less were included in the analysis. The median of all eGFRs measured 24-36 months post-CRI was compared with the median eGFR defining CRI, and changes were grouped into improvement (>+10 ml/min per 1.73 m2), stabilization (-10 to +10 ml/min per 1.73 m2) and progression (<-10 ml/min per 1.73 m2). Adjusted polynomial regression models assessed odds of better eGFR outcomes after CRI, assuming that eGFR improvement is better than stabilization which in turn is better than progression. Results: Of 2006 individuals developing CRI, 21% subsequently improved eGFR, 67% stabilized and 12% progressed. Individuals remaining on tenofovir (TDF) or atazanavir boosted with ritonavir (ATV/r) 24 months post-CRI had worse eGFR outcomes compared with those unexposed [TDF: 0.47 (0.35-0.63) and ATV/r: 0.63 (0.48-0.82)]. Individuals off TDF for 12-24 months [0.75 (0.50-1.13)] or off ATV/r for more than 12 months [1.17 (0.87-1.57)] had similar eGFR outcomes as those unexposed to these antiretrovirals. Older age, hypertension, later date of CRI and diabetes were associated with worse eGFR outcomes. Conclusion: Current TDF and ATV/r use after a diagnosis of CRI was associated with worse eGFR outcomes. In contrast, TDF and ATV/r discontinuation lead to similar longer term eGFR outcomes as in those unexposed, suggesting that these drug-associated eGFR declines may be halted or reversed after their cessation. Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1261-1270
Number of pages10
JournalAIDS (London, England)
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2017


  • atazanavir
  • chronic renal impairment
  • estimated glomerular filtration rate
  • HIV
  • reversibility
  • tenofovir
  • abacavir
  • atazanavir plus ritonavir
  • Human immunodeficiency virus proteinase inhibitor
  • indinavir
  • lopinavir plus ritonavir
  • ritonavir
  • anti human immunodeficiency virus agent
  • adult
  • age
  • aged
  • Article
  • cohort analysis
  • diabetes mellitus
  • disease course
  • human
  • Human immunodeficiency virus infected patient
  • Human immunodeficiency virus infection
  • hypertension
  • kidney dysfunction
  • major clinical study
  • male
  • observational study
  • outcome assessment
  • priority journal
  • prospective study
  • chronic kidney failure
  • complication
  • female
  • glomerulus filtration rate
  • highly active antiretroviral therapy
  • middle aged
  • pathology
  • procedures
  • prognosis
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Anti-HIV Agents
  • Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active
  • Female
  • Glomerular Filtration Rate
  • HIV Infections
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prognosis
  • Prospective Studies
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic


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