© 2017 American Association for Cancer Research. Purpose: Uterine sarcomas are rare and heterogeneous tumors characterized by an aggressive clinical behavior. Their high rates of recurrence and mortality point to the urgent need for novel targeted therapies and alternative treatment strategies. However, no molecular prognostic or predictive biomarkers are available so far to guide choice and modality of treatment. Experimental Design: We investigated the expression of several druggable targets (phospho-S6S240 ribosomal protein, PTEN, PDGFR-a, ERBB2, and EGFR) in a large cohort of human uterine sarcoma samples (288), including leiomyosarcomas, low-grade and high-grade endometrial stromal sarcomas, undifferentiated uterine sarcomas, and adenosarcomas, together with 15 smooth muscle tumors of uncertain malignant potential (STUMP), 52 benign uterine stromal tumors, and 41 normal uterine tissues. The potential therapeutic value of the most promising target, p-S6S240, was tested in patient-derived xenograft (PDX) leiomyosarcoma models. Results: In uterine sarcomas and STUMPs, S6S240 phosphorylation (reflecting mTOR pathway activation) was associated with higher grade (P = 0.001) and recurrence (P = 0.019), as shown by logistic regression. In addition, p-S6240 correlated with shorter progression-free survival (P = 0.034). Treatment with a dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor significantly reduced tumor growth in 4 of 5 leiomyosarcoma PDX models (with tumor shrinkage in 2 models). Remarkably, the 4 responding models showed basal p-S6240 expression, whereas the nonresponding model was scored as negative, suggesting a role for p-S6240 in response prediction to PI3K/mTOR inhibition. Conclusions: Dual PI3K/mTOR inhibition represents an effective therapeutic strategy in uterine leiomyosarcoma, and p-S6240 expression is a potential predictive biomarker for response to treatment.