The aim of this study was to assess postprandial changes in thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) antigen, a thrombin-dependent fibrinolysis inhibitor with anti-inflammatory properties, and soluble markers of endothelial dysfunction in normotriglyceridemic type 2 diabetic patients. Fasting and postprandial TAFI antigen, thrombomodulin, tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI), and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 were assessed in 12 normotriglyceridemic type 2 diabetic patients treated with diet (hemoglobin A1c, 6.80% ± 0.67%) and 14 controls. Fasting low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, free fatty acids and apolipoprotein B, and fasting and postprandial triglyceride, glucose, and insulin were also measured. Fasting TAFI was higher in the control group (102% ± 16.9% vs 72.9% ± 15.9%; P < .0005) and was inversely correlated with glycemic control. It decreased 4 hours after the meal (31.8% reduction [P < .005] for controls and 12.6% [P < .05] for diabetic patients) and returned to fasting levels after 8 hours. This decrement was correlated with fasting TAFI, glucose and hemoglobin A1c, and the area under the curve of glucose. Thrombomodulin, TFPI, and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 were similar in both groups, with thrombomodulin and TFPI showing a transient postprandial increase. A fat-rich meal produces a transient increase in markers of endothelial dysfunction and a temporary reduction in TAFI, an anti-inflammatory molecule whose concentration is low in type 2 diabetes mellitus. © 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.