Porcine circovirus 3 (PCV‐3) as a causal agent of disease in swine and a proposal of PCV‐3 associated disease case definition

Viviane Saporiti, Giovanni Franzo, Marina Sibila, Joaquim Segalés

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleResearchpeer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)


Porcine circovirus 3 (PCV-3) was discovered in 2015 using next-generation sequencing (NGS) methods. Since then, the virus has been detected worldwide in pigs displaying several clinical–pathological outcomes as well as in healthy animals. The objective of this review is to critically discuss the evidence existing so far regarding PCV-3 as a swine pathogen. In fact, a significant number of publications claim PCV-3 as a disease causal infectious agent, but very few of them have shown strong evidence of such potential causality. The most convincing proofs of disease association are those that demonstrate a clinical picture linked to multisystemic lymphoplasmacytic to lymphohistiocytic perivascular inflammation and presence of viral nucleic acid within these lesions. Based on these evidence, individual case definitions for PCV-3-reproductive disease and PCV-3-systemic disease are proposed to standardize diagnostic criteria for PCV-3-associated diseases. However, the real frequency of these clinical–pathological conditions linked to the novel virus is unknown, and the most frequent outcome of PCV-3 infection is likely subclinical based on its worlwide distribution.

Original languageEnglish
Number of pages13
JournalTransboundary and emerging diseases
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 8 Nov 2021


  • case definition
  • disease causality
  • porcine circovirus 3 (PCV-3)
  • reproductive disease
  • systemic disease


Dive into the research topics of 'Porcine circovirus 3 (PCV‐3) as a causal agent of disease in swine and a proposal of PCV‐3 associated disease case definition'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this