The prevalence of canine leishmaniasis infection in an endemic area such as the Mediterranean basin (67%) is higher than the prevalence of the disease (10%), suggesting a role of host genetics related to the outcome of the disease. Because Slc11a1 gene affects susceptibility and clinical outcome of autoimmune and infectious diseases, we analyzed five polymorphisms of the Slc11a1 gene in a case-control study with 97 dogs: three new single nucleotide polymorphisms and a G-stretch in the promoter and a microsatellite in intron 1. Haplotype frequency distributions showed significant differences between case and control populations (P = .01), most likely owing to the single nucleotide polymorphisms in the promoter region that were associated to case dogs. The most frequent haplotypes included TAG-8-141, which was present in all the breeds, in both case and control animals; and TAG-9-145, which was overrepresented in the control population and mostly found in boxer dogs. Within the boxer breed, 81% of the healthy dogs were homozygous TAG-9-145, whereas TAG-8-141 was significantly associated to case boxers (P = .02). The special genotype distribution for the Slc11a1 polymorphism associated with the prevalence of the illness in the boxer breed emphasizes the potential importance that breed genetic background has in canine leishmaniasis susceptibility. © The American Genetic Association. 2005. All rights reserved.