OBJECTIVE: To investigate if systemic d-dimer activation occurs after acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and to study its influence on clinical outcome. METHODS: The authors determined plasma baseline d-dimer in 98 consecutive acute (<24 hours) ICH patients. Glasgow Coma Scale and NIH Stroke Scale scores were recorded to assess neurologic status on baseline and follow-up visits (24 hours, 48 hours, 7th day, and 3rd month). They also determined the d-dimer temporal profile at follow-up visits in a subgroup of 21 patients. ICH volume was measured on baseline and follow-up CT scans. Early neurologic deterioration (END) and mortality during the 1st week were recorded. RESULTS: ICH patients showed higher plasma d-dimer level than reference laboratory values at baseline (1,780 vs 360 ng/mL; p = 0.013) and 3 months after ICH onset (1,530 vs 470 ng/mL; p = 0.013). The d-dimer level was related to baseline ICH volume (r = 0.23, p = 0.049) and to the presence of intraventricular (2,370 vs 1,360 ng/mL; p = 0.019) or subarachnoid (4,180 vs 1,520 ng/mL; p = 0.001) extension. Nearly one-fourth of patients presented END, and 20% died as a result of ICH. As predictors of END, the authors identified d-dimer level >1,900 ng/mL (odds ratio [OR] 4.5, 95% CI 1.03 to 20.26, p = 0.045) and systolic blood pressure >182 mm Hg (OR 6.8, 95% CI 1.25 to 36.9, p = 0.026). Moreover, ICH volume >30 mL (OR 19.13, 95% CI 2.06 to 177, p = 0.009) and d-dimer levels >1,900 ng/mL (OR 8.75, 95% CI 1.41 to 54.16, p = 0.020) emerged as independent predictors of mortality. CONCLUSION: Increased plasma d-dimer level following acute intracerebral hemorrhage is associated with early neurologic deterioration and poor outcome. Copyright © 2006 by AAN Enterprises, Inc.
|Publication status||Published - 1 Jul 2006|