Pig-major acute phase protein and haptoglobin serum concentrations correlate with PCV2 viremia and the clinical course of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome

L. Grau-Roma, P. M.H. Heegaard, C. K. Hjulsager, M. Sibila, C. S. Kristensen, A. Allepuz, M. Piñeiro, L. E. Larsen, J. Segalés, L. Fraile

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Abstract

The aim of the present longitudinal study was to assess the evolution of two acute phase proteins (APPs), pig-major acute phase protein (pig-MAP) and haptoglobin (HPT), in serum from pigs that developed postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) in comparison to healthy and wasted non-PMWS affected pigs. In addition, evidence of infection with other pathogens and its relation with variations in APPs concentrations was also assessed. Fourteen independent batches of 100-154 pigs were monitored from birth to PMWS outbreak occurrence in 11 PMWS affected farms. Pigs displaying PMWS-like signs and age-matched healthy controls were euthanized during the clinical outbreak. PMWS was diagnosed according to internationally accepted criteria and pigs were classified as: (i) PMWS cases, (ii) wasted non-PMWS cases and (iii) healthy pigs. At the moment of PMWS occurrence, pig-MAP and HPT concentration in PMWS affected pigs were higher than in healthy ones (p < 0.0001). No differences in APPs serum concentrations between subclinically PCV2-infected pigs and healthy non-PCV2-infected pigs (based on quantitative PCR on serum results) were detected. Results showed a significant correlation between PCV2 loads and both pig-MAP (R = 0.487-0.602, p < 0.0001) and HPT (R = 0.326-0.550, p < 0.05-0.0001) concentrations in serum of PMWS affected pigs, indicating that the acute phase response in PMWS affected pigs occurred concomitantly to PCV2 viremia. No other pathogen, apart from PCV2, was consistently related with variations in APPs concentrations. A ROC analysis, made to determine the capacity of discrimination of both APPs between PMWS affected and non-affected pigs, showed higher sensitivity and specificity values using pig-MAP compared to HPT. These results suggest that pig-MAP might be a better indicator of PMWS status than HPT. Moreover, the fact that APR occurred some weeks before the start of clinical signs suggests that APPs could provide valuable prognostic information for PMWS development. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)53-61
JournalVeterinary Microbiology
Volume138
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2 Jul 2009

Keywords

  • Acute phase proteins (APPs)
  • Acute phase reaction (APR)
  • Haptoglobin
  • Pig-major acute phase protein (pig-MAP)
  • Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2)
  • Postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS)

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