Pig domestication and human-mediated dispersal in western eurasia revealed through ancient DNA and geometric morphometrics

Claudio Ottoni, Linus Girdland Flink, Allowen Evin, Christina Geörg, Bea De Cupere, Wim Van Neer, László Bartosiewicz, Anna Linderholm, Ross Barnett, Joris Peters, Ronny Decorte, Marc Waelkens, Nancy Vanderheyden, François Xavier Ricaut, Canan Çakirlar, Özlem Çevik, A. Rus Hoelzel, Marjan Mashkour, Azadeh Fatemeh Mohaseb Karimlu, Shiva Sheikhi SenoJulie Daujat, Fiona Brock, Ron Pinhasi, Hitomi Hongo, Miguel Perez-Enciso, Morten Rasmussen, Laurent Frantz, Hendrik Jan Megens, Richard Crooijmans, Martien Groenen, Benjamin Arbuckle, Nobert Benecke, Una Strand Vidarsdottir, Joachim Burger, Thomas Cucchi, Keith Dobney, Greger Larson

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146 Citations (Scopus)


Zooarcheological evidence suggests that pigs were domesticated in Southwest Asia ∼8,500 BC. They then spread across the Middle and Near East and westward into Europe alongside early agriculturalists. European pigs were either domesticated independently or more likely appeared so as a result of admixture between introduced pigs and European wild boar. As a result, European wild boar mtDNA lineages replaced Near Eastern/Anatolian mtDNA signatures in Europe and subsequently replaced indigenous domestic pig lineages in Anatolia. The specific details of these processes, however, remain unknown. To address questions related to early pig domestication, dispersal, and turnover in the Near East, we analyzed ancient mitochondrial DNA and dental geometric morphometric variation in 393 ancient pig specimens representing 48 archeological sites (from the Pre-Pottery Neolithic to the Medieval period) from Armenia, Cyprus, Georgia, Iran, Syria, and Turkey. Our results reveal the first genetic signatures of early domestic pigs in the Near Eastern Neolithic core zone. We also demonstrate that these early pigs differed genetically from those in western Anatolia that were introduced to Europe during the Neolithic expansion. In addition, we present a significantly more refined chronology for the introduction of European domestic pigs into Asia Minor that took place during the Bronze Age, at least 900 years earlier than previously detected. By the 5th century AD, European signatures completely replaced the endemic lineages possibly coinciding with the widespread demographic and societal changes that occurred during the Anatolian Bronze and Iron Ages. © 2012 The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)824-832
JournalMolecular Biology and Evolution
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2013


  • Neolithic
  • phylogeography
  • pig domestication
  • wild boar


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