© 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Oil-in-water pre-emulsions (15% sunflower + 5% olive oils) obtained by colloid mill homogenization (CM) at 5000 rpm using whey protein isolate at different levels (1, 2 and 4%) were stabilized by ultra high-pressure homogenization (UHPH, 100 and 200 MPa) and by conventional homogenization (CH, 15 MPa). Emulsions were characterized for their physical properties (droplet size distribution, microstructure, surface protein concentration, emulsifying stability against creaming and coalescence, and viscosity) and oxidative stability (hydroperoxide content and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TBARs) under light (2000 lux/m2 for 10 days). UHPH produced emulsions with lipid droplets of small size in the sub-micron range (100-200 nm) and low surface protein with unimodal distribution when produced at 4% whey proteins and 200 MPa. All emulsions exhibited Newtonian behavior (n ≈1). Long term physical stability against creaming and coalescence was observed in UHPH-emulsions, compared to those obtained by CM and CH. However, CH emulsions were highly stable against creaming (days) in comparison to the CM emulsions (hours). UHPH resulted in emulsions highly stable to oxidation compared to CM and CH treatments, especially when 100 MPa treatment was applied. Industrial relevance In the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical sectors, industrial operators are currently interested in developing encapsulating systems to delivery bioactive compounds, which are generally hydrophobic, unstable and sensitive to light, temperature or/and oxygen. Ultra high-pressure homogenization is capable of producing stable submicron emulsions (< 1 μm) with a narrow size distribution, inducing more significant changes in the interfacial protein layer thus preventing droplet coalescence and also inhibit lipid oxidation. The present study suggests that emulsions produced by whey protein (4%) treated by ultra high-pressure homogenization have a good physical stability to flocculation, coalescence and creaming and also high stability to lipid oxidation, opening a wide range of opportunities in the formulation of emulsions containing bioactive components with lipid nature.
- Submicron emulsions and oxidative stability
- Ultra high-pressure homogenization (UHPH)
- Whey protein