Physical and Enzymatic Properties of a Class III Isozyme of Human Liver Alcohol Dehydrogenase: χ-ADH

Fred W. Wagner, Xavier Parés, Barton Holmquist, Bert L. Vallee

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101 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

χ“Alcohol dehydrogenase (χ-ADH), a class III isozyme characterized by its anodic electrophoretic mobility and lack of inhibition by 4-methylpyrazole, has been isolated from human liver and purified to homogeneity in a reducing medium. χ_ADH resembles other human liver ADH isozymes of classes I and II with respect to its molecular weight, dimeric structure, stoichiometry of zinc and NADH binding, and pH optima for the oxidation of alcohols. This homodimer exhibits subtle differences in its absorption spectrum and amino acid composition relative to those of other human isozymes but differs markedly from their specificity toward alcohols and aldehydes. χ_ADH oxidizes ethanol very poorly. The reaction is bimolecular, and an apparent Km cannot be discerned up to 2.3 M ethanol. The enzyme is inactive toward methanol, ethylene glycol, digitoxigenin, digoxigenin, and gitoxigenin, but alcohols with carbon chain lengths greater than four are oxidized rapidly with Km values decreasing with increasing carbon chain length. Taken jointly, the composition, structure, and enzymatic properties of the ADH isozymes purified and studied so far strongly imply that their metabolic roles, yet to be discovered, will give a new perspective to ethanol metabolism and pathology. © 1984, American Chemical Society. All rights reserved.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2193-2199
JournalBiochemistry
Volume23
Issue number10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 1984

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