Casein kinase 1 phosphorylated rabbit skeletal muscle glycogen synthase at both seryl and threonyl residues. With glycogen synthase phosphorylated up to 7.5 mol phosphate/mol subunit, about 26% of the phosphate was present in the N-terminal cyanogen bromide fragment (CB1) and 74% in the C-terminal fragment (CB2). Both fragments contained phosphothreonine (11 to 14%) in addition to phosphoserine. When32P-labeled glycogen synthase was totally digested with trypsin and chromatographed on reversephase high-performance liquid chromatography, seven phosphopeptides were observed. Peptide I eluted in the vicinity of the peptide containing site 1a, peptide II coincided with sites 4 + 5, peptides III and IV eluted in the region corresponding to sites 3a + 3b + 3c, peptide V appeared slightly after the peptide containing site 1b and peptide VII behaved as the peptide containing site 2, whereas peptide VI did not coincide with any of the known phosphopeptides. Limited trypsinization prior to analysis by HPLC led to the disappearance of peaks V and VI without altering peaks I to IV and VII. Only peaks I and VII remained when limited chymotrypsinization was performed prior to HPLC analysis. Chromatography on HPLC of the fragments derived from complete trypsinization of CB2 showed the presence of peaks II to VI. Phosphoamino acid analysis of the different peptides demonstrated the presence of quantitative amounts of phosphothreonine in peptides V, VI, and VII. These results indicate that multiple phosphorylation sites for casein kinase 1 must exist in both the N-terminal and C-terminal regions of glycogen synthase, some of which would only be labeled by casein kinase 1. © 1986.