Phospholipase A<inf>2</inf> superfamily members play divergent roles after spinal cord injury

Rubèn López-Vales, Nader Ghasemlou, Adriana Redensek, Bradley J. Kerr, Efrosini Barbayianni, Georgia Antonopoulou, Constantinos Baskakis, Khizr I. Rathore, Violetta Constantinou-Kokotou, Daren Stephens, Takao Shimizu, Edward A. Dennis, George Kokotos, Samuel David

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

34 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in permanent loss of motor functions. A significant aspect of the tissue damage and functional loss may be preventable as it occurs, secondary to the trauma. We show that the phospholipase A 2 (PLA2) superfamily plays important roles in SCI. PLA2 enzymes hydrolyze membrane glycerophospholipids to yield a free fatty acid and lysophospholipid. Some free fatty acids (arachidonic acid) give rise to eicosanoids that promote inflammation, while some lysophospholipids (lysophosphatidylcholine) cause demyelination. We show in a mouse model of SCI that two cytosolic forms [calcium-dependent PLA2 group IVA (cPLA 2 GIVA) and calcium-independent PLA2 group VIA (iPLA 2 GVIA)], and a secreted form [secreted PLA2group IIA (sPLA2 GIIA)] are up-regulated. Using selective inhibitors and null mice, we show that these PLA2s play differing roles. cPLA2 GIVA mediates protection, whereas sPLA2 GIIA and, to a lesser extent, iPLA2 GVIA are detrimental. Furthermore, completely blocking all three PLA2s worsens outcome, while the most beneficial effects are seen by partial inhibition of all three. The partial inhibitor enhances expression of cPLA2 and mediates its beneficial effects via the prostaglandin EP1 receptor. These findings indicate that drugs that inhibit detrimental forms of PLA2 (sPLA2 and iPLA2) and upregulate the protective form (cPLA2) may be useful for the treatment of SCI. © FASEB.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4240-4252
JournalFASEB Journal
Volume25
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2011

Keywords

  • CNS injury
  • Lipid metabolism
  • Prostaglandin receptors
  • Secondary damage

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