Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and Ca(2+)-calmodulin dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII)-mediated phosphorylation activate histamine synthesis in nerve endings, but the phosphatases deactivating it had not been studied. In this work we show that the protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A)/protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) inhibitor okadaic acid increases histamine synthesis up to twofold in rat cortical miniprisms containing histaminergic nerve endings. This effect was mimicked by the PP2A/PP1 inhibitor calyculin, but not by the inactive analog 1-norokadaone. Other phosphatase inhibitors like endothall (PP2A), cypermethrin and cyclosporin A (protein phosphatase 2B, PP2B) had much lower effects. The effects of okadaic acid appeared to be mediated by an activation of the histamine synthesizing enzyme, histidine decarboxylase. PKA-mediated activation of histamine synthesis decreased the EC50 and maximal effects of okadaic acid. On the other hand, CaMKII-mediated activation of histamine synthesis decreased okadaic acid maximal effects, but it increased its EC50. In conclusion, our results indicate that brain histamine synthesis is subjected to regulation by phosphatases PP2A and PP1, and perhaps also PP2B as well as by protein kinases. © 2007 IBRO.
|Publication status||Published - 12 Dec 2007|
- Ca(2+)-calmodulin dependent protein kinase
- cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase
- histidine decarboxylase
- okadaic acid
- protein phosphatases