Phantom behavior via cosmological creation of particles

Rafael C. Nunes, Diego Pavón

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

48 Citations (Scopus)


© 2015 American Physical Society. Recent determinations of the equation of state of dark energy hint that this may well be of the phantom type, i.e., wde<-1. If confirmed by future experiments, this would strongly point to the existence of fields that violate the dominant energy condition, which are known to present serious theoretical difficulties. This paper presents an alternative to this possibility, namely, that the measured equation of state, wde, is in reality an effective one, the equation of state of the quantum vacuum, wΛ=-1, plus the negative equation of state, wc, associated to the production of particles by the gravitational field acting on the vacuum. To illustrate this, three phenomenological models are proposed and constrained with recent observational data.
Original languageEnglish
Article number063526
JournalPhysical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 23 Mar 2015


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