© 2017 Figueras-Roca et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Aims To study the association between peripheral blood metabolic and inflammatory factors and presence of diabetic macular edema (DME) and its related anatomic features in type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM) patients. Material and methods Observational cross-sectional study on a proof of concept basis. Seventy-six T2DM included patients were divided based on the presence (n = 58) or absence of DME (n = 18) according to optical coherence tomography (OCT). Ultra-widefield fluorescein angiography (UWFA) was performed in DME patients. Fasting peripheral blood sample testing included glycemia, glycated hemoglobin, creatinin and lipid levels among others. Serum levels of a broad panel of cytokines and inflammatory mediators were also analysed. OCT findings included central subfoveal thickness, diffuse retinal thickness (DRT), cystoid macular edema (CME), serous retinal detachment and epirretinal membrane. UWFA items included pattern of DME, presence of peripheral retinal ischemia and enlarged foveal avascular zone (FAZ). Results Metabolic and inflammatory factors did not statistically differ between groups. However, several inflammatory mediators did associate to certain ocular items of DME cases: IL-6 was significantly higher in patients with DRT (p = 0.044), IL-10 was decreased in patients with CME (p = 0.012), and higher IL-8 (p = 0.031) and VEGF levels (p = 0.031) were observed in patients with enlarged FAZ. Conclusion Inflammatory and metabolic peripheral blood factors in T2DM may not be differentially associated to DME when compared to non-DME cases. However, some OCT and UWFA features of DME such as DRT, CME and enlarged FAZ may be associated to certain systemic inflammatory mediators.