Perceived distributed effort in team ball sports

Violeta Beniscelli, Gershon Tenenbaum, Robert Joel Schinke, Miquel Torregrosa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


In this study, we explored the multifaceted concept of perceived mental and physical effort in team sport contexts where athletes must invest individual and shared efforts to reach a common goal. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of 15 Catalan professional coaches (3 women and 12 men, 3 each from the following sports: volleyball, basketball, handball, soccer, and water polo) to gain their views of three perceived effort-related dimensions: physical, psychological, and tactical. From a theoretical thematic analysis, it was found that the perception of effort is closely related to how effort is distributed within the team. Moreover, coaches viewed physical effort in relation to the frequency and intensity of the players' involvement in the game. They identified psychological effort in situations where players pay attention to proper cues, and manage emotions under difficult circumstances. Tactical effort addressed the decision-making process of players and how they fulfilled their roles while taking into account the actions of their teammates and opponents. Based on these findings, a model of perceived distributed effort was developed, which delineates the elements that compose each of the aforementioned dimensions. Implications of perceived distributed effort in team coordination and shared mental models are discussed. © 2013 © 2013 Taylor & Francis.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)710-721
JournalJournal of Sports Sciences
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2014


  • attention
  • decision-making
  • energy expenditure
  • exertion
  • group dynamics

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