Penile squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is uncommon in Europe, where it accounts for approximately 0.7% of all malignant tumors in men. The main risk factors are poor hygiene, lack of circumcision, human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, and certain chronic inflammatory skin diseases. HPV infection is detected in 70% to 100% of all penile in situ SCCs and in 30% to 50% of invasive forms of the disease, mainly basaloid and warty SCCs. In situ tumors can be treated conservatively, but close monitoring is essential as they become invasive in between 1% and 30% of cases. The treatment of choice for penile SCC is surgery. Inguinal lymph node irradiation is no longer recommended as a prophylactic measure, and it appears that selective lymph node biopsy might be useful for reducing the morbidity associated with prophylactic inguinal lymph node dissection. Survival is directly related to lymph node involvement. Improving our knowledge of underlying molecular changes and their associated genotypes will open up new therapeutic pathways. © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEDV. All rights reserved.
|Publication status||Published - 1 Jan 2012|
- Bowen disease
- Carcinoma in situ
- Erythroplasia of Queyrat
- Squamous cell carcinoma