© The Wildlife Society, 2018 Hunting affects many threatened mammal species in Brazil. We described subsistence hunting patterns for medium- (1.0–14.9 kg) and large-sized (>15 kg) mammal species by a rural community in the eastern Amazon, Brazil. From April 2012 to November 2013, we observed hunts and conducted semistructured interviews with local hunters. We identified species of game mammals in the region, frequency of capture, capture techniques used for each species, yield of the hunt, and reasons that hunting is practiced in the region. We then performed a correlation analysis and multivariate analysis to determine similarities and differences of mammals hunted in each landscape. We recorded 18 species of harvested animals (n = 132) including common paca (Cuniculus paca), capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris), southern naked-tailed armadillo (Cabassous unicinctus), nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus), and six-banded armadillo (Euphractus sexcinctus). Endangered species that were hunted included giant armadillo (Priodontes maximus) and white-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari). The medium-sized mammals comprised 75.7% of harvested mammals, whereas 24.2% were large-sized mammals; however, the latter group represented 55.8% of the mass of harvested meat. Half of all biomass harvested was from rainforests that made up 2.2% of the region. Knowing what, how, why, and where certain species are hunted increases understanding of pressure local communities exert on wild animal populations. As the first study of its kind in the eastern Brazilian Amazon, our study is a basis for further work in relation to effect and sustainability of hunting wildlife, and conservation strategies for medium- and long-term management programs for species conservation at the regional level. © 2018 The Wildlife Society.