Paths to equilibrium in non-conformal collisions

Maximilian Attems, Jorge Casalderrey-Solana, David Mateos, Daniel Santos-Oliván, Carlos F. Sopuerta, Miquel Triana, Miguel Zilhão

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    31 Citations (Scopus)


    © 2017, The Author(s). We extend our previous analysis of holographic heavy ion collisions in non-conformal theories. We provide a detailed description of our numerical code. We study collisions at different energies in gauge theories with different degrees of non-conformality. We compare four relaxation times: the hydrodynamization time (when hydrodynamics becomes applicable), the EoSization time (when the average pressure approaches its equilibrium value), the isotropization time (when the longitudinal and transverse pressures approach each other) and the condensate relaxation time (when the expectation value of a scalar operator approaches its equilibrium value). We find that these processes can occur in several different orderings. In particular, the condensate can remain far from equilibrium even long after the plasma has hydrodynamized and EoSized. We also explore the rapidity distribution of the energy density at hydrodynamization. This is far from boost-invariant and its width decreases as the non-conformality increases. Nevertheless, the velocity field at hydrodynamization is almost exactly boost-invariant regardless of the non-conformality. This result may be used to constrain the initialization of hydrodynamic fields in heavy ion collisions.
    Original languageEnglish
    Article number154
    JournalJournal of High Energy Physics
    Issue number6
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2017


    • Black Holes
    • Gauge-gravity correspondence
    • Holography and quark-gluon plasmas
    • Quark-Gluon Plasma


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