Fifteen pigs from five farms on which there had been a previous clinical and histopathological diagnosis of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) were investigated. At necropsy, enlargement of lymph nodes was the most obvious lesion; other lesions were non-collapsed lungs, ulceration of the gastric pars oesophagica, and cranioventral pulmonary consolidation. Microscopical lesions attributable to PMWS were found in lymphoid organs (including lymph nodes, tonsil, Peyer's patches and spleen), liver, kidney and lungs. Varying degrees of lymphocellular depiction, affecting both lymphoid follicles and parafollicular zones, and progressive multifocal to diffuse infiltration of lymphoid tissue by large histiocytic cells were the characteristic lesions. Syncytial cells were seen frequently, especially in lymphoid organs. A prominent finding was the presence of sharply demarcated, spherical, basophilic, cytoplasmic inclusions in histiocytic cells. The lymphoid lesions were suggestive of immunosuppression. Non-lymphoid lesions included interstitial pneumonia, periportal mononuclear inflammatory infiltration of the liver in varying degrees, and interstitial nephritis. Porcine circovirus (PCV) antigen and nucleic acid were regularly found in lymphoid organs, lung, liver and, to a lesser degree, kidney. Target cells for PCV replication included monocyce/macrophage lineage and antigen-presenting cells. To a lesser extent, epithelial cells such as renal tubular, bronchial and bronchiolar cells, endothelial cells, hepatocytes and lymphocytes were also labelled. One pig did not show PCV nucleic acid; sequence differences among different viral isolates are discussed as the probable cause of this lack of labelling by the in-situ hybridization PCV-specific probe.