Understanding the mechanisms that underpin pathogen recognition and subsequent orchestration of the immune response in fish is an area of significant importance for both basic research and management of health in aquaculture. In recent years much attention has been given to the identification of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) in fish, however, characterisation of interactions with specific pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) is still incomplete. Microarray studies have significantly contributed to functional studies and early descriptions of PAMP-PRR driven activation of specific response cassettes in the genome have been obtained although much is left to be done. In this review we will address gram negative (G-negative) bacterial recognition in fish addressing contributing factors such as structure-function relationships between G-negative PAMPs, current knowledge of fish PRRs and the input achieved by microarray-based studies ranging from in vivo infection studies to directed in vitro PAMP-cell studies. Finally we revisit the endotoxic recognition paradigm in fish and suggest a series of future perspectives that could contribute toward the further elucidation of G-negative bacterial recognition across the highly diverse group of vertebrates that encompass the fishes. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.
- Innate immunity