© Springer International Publishing AG 2017. In this chapter, pilot-scale studies and some innovative lab-scale investigations on hospital wastewater (HWW) treatment are presented. Pilot-scale systems usually consist of a first biological treatment to remove organic matter, nutrients, and some pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) followed by a physicochemical treatment to increase removal of PhACs and other micropollutants (MPs). Biological treatments are usually advanced treatments such as membrane bioreactors (MBRs), which allow longer residence time of microorganisms, and thus, more suitable conditions for the removal of micropollutants such as PhACs. Moreover, membranes also sanitize the effluent, retaining the pathogenic microorganisms and reducing release of antibiotic resistance genes (ARG). On the other hand, ozonation and activated carbon (AC) are the most common alternatives chosen as a polishing step. Research is actively working on innovative treatments, such as photocatalysis, to reduce the treatment cost, which is the major drawback for implementation of dedicated (in situ) degradation treatments of PhACs in HWW.
|Title of host publication||Handbook of Environmental Chemistry|
|Number of pages||21|
|Publication status||Published - 1 Jan 2018|
- Advanced oxidation processes
- Hospital wastewater
- Membrane biological reactor
- Pilot plants