Contents: Ultrasonography has become indispensable in the control of equine reproduction. Mare ovary layers are inverted with respect to other species, with the follicles and corpus luteum found inside the ovary; only large follicles protrude from the organ's surface. This renders the making of diagnoses via rectal palpation of the ovaries very difficult. Ultrasound imaging, however, provides another avenue of examination. Since its first use in 1980, the diagnostic potential of ultrasonography has greatly improved. Colour Doppler ultrasonography can even asses blood flow, allowing for much better monitoring of ovarian activity. This study discusses the use of ultrasound, and in particular colour Doppler ultrasonography, in the monitoring of mare ovarian function and disease. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.