Organic cofactors in the metabolism of dehalococcoides mccartyi strains

Christian J. Schipp, Ernest Marco-Urrea, Anja Kublik, Jana Seifert, Lorenz Adrian

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    Dehalococcoides mccartyi strains are strictly anaerobic organisms specialized to grow with halogenated compounds as electron acceptor via a respiratory process. Their genomes are among the smallest known for free-living organisms, and the embedded gene set reflects their strong specialization. Here, we briefly review main characteristics of published Dehalococcoides genomes and show how genome information together with cultivation and biochemical experiments have contributed to our understanding of Dehalococcoides physiology and biochemistry. We extend this approach by the detailed analysis of cofactor metabolism in Dehalococcoides strain CBDB1. Dehalococcoides genomes were screened for encoded proteins annotated to contain or interact with organic cofactors, and the expression of these proteins was analysed by shotgun proteomics to shed light on cofactor requirements. In parallel, cultivation experiments testing for vitamin requirements showed that cyanocobalamin (vitamin B12), thiamine and biotin were essential supplements and that cyanocobalamin could be substituted by dicyanocobinamide and dimethylbenzimidazole. Dehalococcoides genome analysis, detection of single enzymes by shotgun proteomics and inhibition studies confirmed the expression of the biosynthetic pathways for pyridoxal-5-phosphate, flavin nucleotides, folate, S-adenosylmethionine, pantothenate and nicotinic acids in strain CBDB1. Haem/cytochromes, quinones and lipoic acids were not necessary for cultivation or dechlorination activity and no biosynthetic pathways were identified in the genomes. © 2013 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.
    Original languageEnglish
    JournalPhilosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
    Publication statusPublished - 19 Apr 2013


    • Biosynthesis
    • Cofactors
    • Comparative genomics
    • Dehalococcoides
    • Proteomics
    • Vitamin requirements


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