Orchard applications of entomopathogenic nematodes in Spain

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Abstract

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015. Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) are important biological control agents for a variety of pests, especially for soil–dwelling insect pests. Worldwide, EPNs have been used in strawberry plantations, mushroom production, orchards, production nurseries, greenhouses and turfgrass (Grewal, Ehlers, & Shapiro-Ilan, 2005). Currently, over 42 EPN products from five different species (Steinernema feltiae (Filipjev) Wouts, Mráček, Gerdin & Bedding (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae), Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser) Wouts, Mráček, Gerdin & Bedding [Rhabditida: Steinernematidae], Steinernema kraussei (Steiner) Travassos [Rhabditida: Steinernematidae], Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar [Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae] and Heterorhabditis megidis Poinar, Jackson & Klein [Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae]) can be commercialized in Spain (MAGRAMA, 2014). These EPNs are supplied by ten different producers, six international and four Spanish companies. However, in Spain, EPNs have been applied against few selected pests in some crops, frequently in organic farming or in conventional management plantations as the last choice when chemical pesticides have failed. An example is the use of EPNs against the red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Due to the high efficacy of EPNs observed in the control of R. ferrugineus and the low efficacy of most of the chemical pesticides, EPNs have been one of the principal control methods of this weevil pest in Spain (Dembilio, Llácer, Martínez de Altube, & Jacas, 2010; Llácer, Martínez de Altube, & Jacas, 2009).
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationNematode Pathogenesis of Insects and Other Pests: Ecology and Applied Technologies for Sustainable Plant and Crop Protection
Pages403-419
Number of pages16
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2015

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