The problems of optimally estimating a phase, a direction, and the orientation of a Cartesian frame (or trihedron) with general pure states are addressed. Special emphasis is put on estimation schemes that allow for inconclusive answers or abstention. It is shown that such schemes enable drastic improvements, up to the extent of attaining the Heisenberg limit in some cases, and the required amount of abstention is quantified. A general mathematical framework to deal with the asymptotic limit of many qubits or large angular momentum is introduced and used to obtain analytical results for all the relevant cases under consideration. Parameter estimation with abstention is also formulated as a semidefinite programming problem, for which very efficient numerical optimization techniques exist. © 2013 American Physical Society.
|Journal||Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics|
|Publication status||Published - 29 Jul 2013|