On the breeds of cattle-Historic and current classifications

Marleen Felius, Peter A. Koolmees, Bert Theunissen, Johannes A. Lenstra, R. Baumung, S. Manatrinon, G. Mommens, L. E. Holm, K. B. Withen, B. V. Pedersen, P. Gravlund, H. Viinalass, J. Kantanen, I. Tapio, M. H. Li, K. Moazami-Goudarzi, M. Gautier, Denis Laloë, A. Oulmouden, H. LevézielP. Taberlet, B. Harlizius, H. Simianer, H. Täubert, G. Erhardt, O. Jann, C. Weimann, E. M. Prinzenberg, I. Medugorac, A. Medugorac, M. Förster, H. M. Mix, C. Looft, E. Kalm, D. G. Bradley, C. J. Edwards, D. E. Machugh, A. R. Freeman, P. Ajmone Marsan, R. Negrini, M. Longeri, G. Ceriotti, M. Zanotti, D. Marletta, A. Criscione, A. Valentini, C. Marchitelli, L. Pariset, M. C. Savarese, F. Pilla, Z. Grislis, I. Miceikienė, I. J. Nijman, W. van Haeringen, L. van de Goor, I. Olsaker, C. Ginja, L. T. Gama, J. C. Mateus, A. Beja-Pereira, N. Ferrand, Z. Ivanova, R. Popov, I. Ammosov, T. Kiselyova, N. Marzanov, S. Stojanovic, M. Simčič, P. Dovč, D. Kompan, S. Dunner, C. Rodellar, I. Martín-Burriel, A. Sánchez, J. Piedrafita, P. J. Azor, J. V. Delgado, A. Martínez-Martínez, A. Molina, E. Rodero, G. Dolf, J. L. Williams, P. Wiener, M. W. Bruford, T. C. Bray, L. Alderson, M. C.T. Penedo

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61 Citations (Scopus)


Classification of cattle breeds contributes to our understanding of the history of cattle and is essential for an effective conservation of genetic diversity. Here we review the various classifications over the last two centuries and compare the most recent classifications with genetic data. The classifications devised during the 19th to the late 20th century were in line with the Linnaean taxonomy and emphasized cranial or horn morphology. Subsequent classifications were based on coat color, geographic origin or molecular markers. Several theories were developed that linked breed characteristics either to a supposed ancestral aurochs subspecies or to a presumed ethnic origin. Most of the older classifications have now been discarded, but have introduced several Latin terms that are still in use. The most consistent classification was proposed in 1995 by Felius and emphasizes the geographic origin of breeds. This is largely in agreement with the breed clusters indicated by a biochemical and molecular genetic analysis, which reflect either groups of breeds with a common geographic origin or single breeds that have expanded by export and/or crossbreeding. We propose that this information is also relevant for managing the genetic diversity of cattle.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)660-692
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2011


  • Aurochs
  • Breeds
  • Cattle
  • Classification


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