On an SE(Is)(Ih)AR epidemic model with combined vaccination and antiviral controls for COVID-19 pandemic

M. De la Sen*, A. Ibeas

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

21 Citations (Scopus)


In this paper, we study the nonnegativity and stability properties of the solutions of a newly proposed extended SEIR epidemic model, the so-called SE(Is)(Ih)AR epidemic model which might be of potential interest in the characterization and control of the COVID-19 pandemic evolution. The proposed model incorporates both asymptomatic infectious and hospitalized infectious subpopulations to the standard infectious subpopulation of the classical SEIR model. In parallel, it also incorporates feedback vaccination and antiviral treatment controls. The exposed subpopulation has three different transitions to the three kinds of infectious subpopulations under eventually different proportionality parameters. The existence of a unique disease-free equilibrium point and a unique endemic one is proved together with the calculation of their explicit components. Their local asymptotic stability properties and the attainability of the endemic equilibrium point are investigated based on the next generation matrix properties, the value of the basic reproduction number, and nonnegativity properties of the solution and its equilibrium states. The reproduction numbers in the presence of one or both controls is linked to the control-free reproduction number to emphasize that such a number decreases with the control gains. We also prove that, depending on the value of the basic reproduction number, only one of them is a global asymptotic attractor and that the solution has no limit cycles.

Original languageEnglish
Article number92
Pages (from-to)92
Number of pages30
JournalAdvances in Difference Equations
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2021


  • Antiviral treatment control
  • Limit cycles
  • Nonnegativity of solutions
  • Reproduction number
  • SE(Is)(Ih)AR epidemic model
  • SEIR epidemic model
  • Vaccination control


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