The purpose of this retrospective study was to determine the prevalence, type, and prognosis of ocular lesions associated with leishmaniasis in dogs. One hundred and five dogs (24.4% of all cases of leishmaniasis diagnosed during the study period) had ocular or periocular leishmaniasis, and 16 dogs (15.2% of ocular cases) had only ocular lesions and systemic signs were not apparent. Anterior uveitis was the most common manifestation and other prevalent findings included blepharitis and keratoconjunctivitis. Several distinct variations of eyelid lesions were seen including a dry dermatitis with alopecia, diffuse blepharedema, cutaneous ulceration, and discrete nodular granuloma formation. In some cases with keratoconjunctivitis, corneal lesions clinically resembled nodular granulomatous episclerokeratitis. Twenty-seven of the 34 cases with ocular lesions had improvement in signs following systemic antiprotozoal and topical anti-inflammatory therapy, although many cases with anterior uveitis required long-term topical therapy. Response of ocular signs correlated highly with overall, systemic response to therapy. Ophthalmic manifestations of systemic leishmaniasis are common in the dog, and this disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of most adnexal and anterior segment ocular inflammatory lesions in dogs in endemic areas.
- Anterior uveitis