Obtaining three-dimensional models of limb long bonesfrom small mammals: A photogrammetric approach

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The use of two-dimensional (2D) pictures to analyse form variation of three-dimensional (3D) objectsentails measurement error, loss of important information and a possible misinterpretation of real shapechanges. Despite the increasing availability of 3D imaging technologies, many geometric morphometricanalyses of 3D objects are often performed on 2D images for several reasons. This issue is particularlyrelevant in the study of postcranial bones from small mammals, as devices precise enough for digitisingtiny objects are the most expensive ones. In this chapter, we describe a photogrammetric protocol toobtain 3D models of limb long bones from small mammals. The procedure is based on obtaining 2Dpictures from different angles using techniques of macro photography. To assess the usefulness of thismethod for geometric morphometric studies, we compare the form of the humerus between fossorial andsemiaquatic water vole species (genus Arvicola).
Translated title of the contributionObtención de modelos tridimensionales de huesos largos de extremidades de pequeños mamíferos: una aproximación fotogramétrica
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationeometric Morphometrics. Trends in Biology, Paleobiology and Archaeology
EditorsCarme Rissech, Lluís Lloveras, Jordi Nadal, Josep Maria Fullola
Place of PublicationBarcelona
Number of pages14
ISBN (Electronic)978-84-944730-3-6
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2018

Publication series

NameMonografies del SERP
PublisherSeminari d'Estudis i Recerques Prehistòriques


  • Arvicola
  • Geometric Morphometrics
  • Humerus
  • Macrophotography
  • Photogrammetry


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