Nutritional intake and prevalence of nutritional deficiencies prior to surgery in a spanish morbidly obese population

Violeta Moizé, Ramon Deulofeu, Ferran Torres, Jesus Martinez De Osaba, Josep Vidal

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78 Citations (Scopus)


Background: The prevalence of obesity in Spain is on the rise with the consequent increase in bariatric surgery. Studies in non-Mediterranean populations have shown that micronutrient deficits are present before surgery. However, there is no data on this topic in a Spanish population. Methods: We evaluated food intake and the prevalence of nutritional deficiencies in 231 obese patient (72.3% women, 45.6∈±∈9.9 years, BMI 48.2∈±∈7.8 kg/m 2) candidates for bariatric surgery. Forty-six normal weight individuals with similar demographic variables except BMI were included for comparison of deficiencies. Results: In obese subjects, the mean estimated energy intake was 2,584∈±∈987 kcal/day in males and 2,094∈±∈669 kcal/day in females (p∈<∈0. 05). After adjusting for kilocalorie intake, carbohydrate intake was of 38.7% [CI 36.2 to 41.1] and 39.9% [CI 37.8 to 40.8] (n.s.), lipid intake was 41.9% [CI 39.6 to 44.2] and 43.0% [CI 41.7 to 44.8] (n.s.) and protein intake was 19.1% [CI 17.7 to 20.5] and 17.3% [CI 16.4 to 18.1] (n.s.) for men and women, respectively. The most prevalent deficiency was vitamin D25(OH): obese 94%, control 24%; (p∈<∈0.0001). Above normal PTH levels were observed in 41.0% and 20.0% of obese and normal weight subjects, respectively (p∈<∈0.0497). Increased prevalence of deficiencies in obese patients included magnesium, vitamin B6 and anaemia (p∈<∈0.05). Other vitamin deficiencies were observed although did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions: Nutritional deficiencies are commonly found in the Spanish obese population undergoing bariatric surgery and are significantly more prevalent than in normal weight individuals. © 2011 Springer Science + Business Media, LLC.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1382-1388
JournalObesity Surgery
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sep 2011


  • Bariatric surgery
  • Caloric intake
  • Nutritional status
  • Vitamin D


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