The role of eicosanoid metabolism and its relationship with nitric oxide production in the ischemia-reperfusion associated with pancreas transplantation in the rat is explored in this study. Twenty-six male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into 3 groups, as follows: group 1, control animals not surgically manipulated; group 2, pancreas transplantation, after 12 hr of organ preservation in University of Wisconsin solution; group 3, same as group 2 but with administration of NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor) (10 mg/kg) before organ revascularization. The results show posttransplantation increases in edema and in 6-keto-prostaglandin F1α (×l.9), thromboxane B2 (×4), and prostaglandin E2(×1.9) levels in pancreatic tissue. Nitric oxide synthase inhibition reversed the increases in edema and eicosanoid production, which suggests that eicosanoid generation in the recipient rat would be mediated, in part, through a nitric oxide-dependent mechanism. © 1995 by Williams & Wilkins.