We examined experimentally whether fertilizers or herbicides commonly used by farmers affect mortality of the adult grain beetle Tenebrio molitor. After a period of 4 weeks in direct contact with all treatments, a higher percentage of mortality occurred in contact with nitrates than with pig manure or turkey litter. Herbicides (a mixture of glyphosate and 2,4-d) caused 100% mortality. Our results also indicate that more beetles escaped from the herbicides and nitrate treatments than from the others, suggesting some kind of behavioural avoidance of toxic environments. The traditional organic fertilizers appear to be less toxic than inorganic fertilizers for Tenebrio molitor. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.
|Journal||Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology|
|Publication status||Published - 1 Jan 2010|
- Beetle behavior
- Farming management
- Insect conservation
- Wildlife conservation
- Yellow mealworm