New virtual reality tool (Nesplora Aquarium) for assessing attention and working memory in adults: A normative study

Gema Climent, Celestino Rodríguez, Trinidad García, Débora Areces, Miguel Mejías, Amaia Aierbe, Marta Moreno, Eduardo Cueto, Judit Castellá, Mari Feli González

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearch

11 Citations (Scopus)


© 2019, © 2019 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Attentional and working memory (WM) processes undergo significant changes during different stages of development. However, currently there are not many continuous performance tools based on virtual reality (VR) for measuring attentional capacity in adults. The present study aimed to obtain normative data for the Nesplora Aquarium VR test in a Spanish population, looking at sex and age variables. In addition, this study also aimed to analyze the psychometric properties of the tool such as scale, internal consistency, and item difficulty and discrimination indices. A total of 1,469 participants from different regions of Spain (57.6% female) with ages ranging from 16 to 90 years old took part in this normative study. Nesplora Aquarium was developed in order to support clinicians in the assessment of attentional processes and WM in adults over 16 years old. It is an 18-minute individual test performed through a VR system. The system provides better visual and auditory immersion in the task than computerized CPTs. This study revealed that the new VR tool, designed to measure adult attention and working memory levels, exhibited good psychometric properties related to reliability and internal consistency. In addition, item difficulty and discrimination values were also acceptable.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)-
JournalApplied neuropsychology. Adult
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2019


  • Adults
  • attention
  • continuous performance test
  • diagnosis
  • virtual reality


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