Keloids and hypertrophic scars are prevalent disabling conditions with still suboptimal treatments. Basic science and molecular-based medicine research have contributed to unravel new bench-to-bedside scar therapies and to dissect the complex signalling pathways involved. Peptides such as the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) superfamily, with Smads, Ski, SnoN, Fussels, endoglin, DS-Sily, Cav-1p, AZX100, thymosin-β4 and other related molecules may emerge as targets to prevent and treat keloids and hypertrophic scars. The aim of this review is to describe the basic complexity of these new molecular scar management strategies and point out new fibrosis research lines. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI.