Available remains of the barbourofelin Albanosmilus jourdani from the Middle to Late Miocene of the Vallès-Penedès Basin (NE Iberian Peninsula) are described. In addition to the dentognathic remains described by previous authors, the new material includes a complete cranium, a calvarium and several mandibles from Abocador de Can Mata, Creu Conill 20 and Hostalets Superior. It is concluded that Albanosmilus, previously considered a subjective junior synonym of Sansanosmilus, must be resurrected as a polytypic genus including A. jourdani (= A. vallesiensis). The most plesiomorphic North American barbourofelin, previously included in Barbourofelis, is also transferred into Albanosmilus as A. whitfordi. An emended diagnosis of Albanosmilus is provided. The results of a cladistic analysis support the monophyly of the family Barbourofelidae and the tribe Barbourofelini, further indicating that amongst the latter, Sansanosmilus occupies the basalmost position. The two Albanosmilus species are more derived, although the analysis fails to resolve conclusively whether A. whitfordi is more closely related to A. jourdani or Barbourofelis s.s. From a palaeobiogeographical viewpoint, our results suggest that: (1) barbourofelins originated in Eurasia during the early Middle Miocene; (2) Barbourofelis originated in North America during the late Middle Miocene, following the dispersal of Eurasian Albanosmilus into that continent; and (3) the presence of Barbourofelis in Turkey during the Late Miocene may represent a later independent dispersal event from North America back into Eurasia. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.
- false sabre-toothed cats