BACKGROUNDThe aims of this study were to (i) compare the concentrations of two neural injury markers, S100B protein and neuron-specific enolase (NSE), in intrauterine growth-restricted (IUGR) fetuses and in fetuses with appropriate growth-for-gestational-age (AGA), and (ii) investigate potential relationships between concentrations of these markers, Doppler abnormalities, and adverse perinatal or neonatal outcomes.METHODSThis was a case-controlled, cooperative, prospective study among Spanish Maternal and Child Health Network (Retic SAMID) hospitals. At inclusion, biometry for estimated fetal weight and feto-placental Doppler were measured. At the time of delivery, maternal venous blood and fetal umbilical arterial blood samples were collected. S100B and NSE concentrations were determined from these samples.RESULTSIn total, 254 pregnancies were included. Among these, 147 were classified as IUGR and 107 as AGA. There were no differences between the groups in S100B concentrations. However, levels of NSE in maternal and umbilical cord serum differed significantly between these groups (2.31 in AGA vs. 2.51 in IUGR in (P<0.05); and 2.89 in AGA vs. 3.25 in IUGR (P<0.05), respectively). No differences were observed in these neurological markers when stratified by perinatal or neonatal complications.CONCLUSIONAlthough some variations exist in these neurological markers, they did not correlate with perinatal or neonatal complications.