Multistate Multiresonator Spectral Signature Barcodes Implemented by Means of S-Shaped Split Ring Resonators (S-SRRs)

Cristian Herrojo, Ferran Paredes, Javier Mata-Contreras, Simone Zuffanelli, Ferran Martin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

41 Citations (Scopus)


© 1963-2012 IEEE. Spectral signature barcodes functional at the S frequency band are presented in this paper. The barcodes are implemented by loading a coplanar waveguide transmission line by means of multiple S-shaped split ring resonators (S-SRRs), each one tuned to a different frequency. The main particularity of this paper is the fact that more than two logic states (i.e., three or four, depending on the implementation) are assigned to each resonant element. By this means, the total number of bits of the barcode (for a given number of resonators) is increased, as compared with previous approaches based on two logic states per resonator. This multistate functionality is achieved by rotating the S-SRRs. Such rotation modulates the line-to-resonator coupling intensity, and consequently the notch depth at the S-SRR fundamental resonance. Therefore, by considering three or four fixed rotation angles (or orientations) between the line axis and the S-SRR (for the tri- and fourstate multiresonator barcodes, respectively), intermediate levels between the maximum and minimum attenuation are achieved. This multistate strategy only exploits a single frequency per resonant element (the fundamental one). Therefore, the data capacity per bandwidth are improved as compared with twostate- based barcodes or to multistate barcodes that use two frequencies per resonant element. As illustrative examples, two different four-state multiresonator barcodes with eight S-SRRs (providing 48 = 65.536 different codes, or 16 bits) and with nine S-SRRs (equivalent to 18 bits), occupying a spectral bandwidth of 1 GHz and less than 6.75 and 8.2 cm2, respectively, are designed, fabricated, and characterized.
Original languageEnglish
Article number7878670
Pages (from-to)2341-2352
JournalIEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2017


  • Coplanar waveguide (CPW) technology
  • S-shaped split ring resonators (S-SRRs)
  • spectral signature barcodes


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